Unformatted text preview: ikely to
be effective Negative Transfer Likelihood of
experience is low. Far (Positive)
Figure 8.7 Standard versus Goal-free problem Statements
B A Givens:
Angle AEB = 900
Angle BDA = 45
Angle BAE = 60 0 D C Line AD = 3
Line AB = 5
Line BC = 8.5 Standard Problem Statement Goal-free Problem Statement Use the givens to determine the
area of Triangle ABC. Use the givens to calculate as many
t o c alculate a s m any o f t he
characteristics of Triangle ABC as
possible. 64 Figure 8.8. Creating a Cognitive Strategy To create a cognitive strategy, you can begin by analyzing the learning task in terms of
what successful learners do. There are a series of questions that you could use to
1. What is the task of interest?
Students are having difficulty writing an essay test. They know the material, but fail to
communicate effectively when they answer the essay questions. The goal is to create an
information-processing analysis for answering essay questions effectively.
2. What do good learners do with a task like this?
The task for this example is to brainstorm a list of techniques learners use to answer essay
They read the question carefully and underline what they are to do.
They overview the test and think about which questions to answer first
They create a time schedule for taking the test. For example, if the questions are equally
weighted and there are four of them, take allotted time and divide it into fourths.
They write down key ideas they want to address or if time allows they outline.
They make sure that they answer the question that has been asked.
They proofread their answers if time allows.
3. Order the techniques into a logical sequence and if possible, combine some
techniques into a single step.
overview the questions
select the order in which they will be written
create a time schedule
Read for what the question is asking.
Write down key words.
Outline if time allows
Keep the question in mind
Make sure to touch on key ideas that have been listed
Proofread and correct
Did I answer the question?
4. Create an acronym to help students remember the steps. (PROWL)...
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- Spring '08
- Procedural knowledge, Mary Eddistone