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Unformatted text preview: ransfer situations. Negative transfer could occur if the learner fails
to discriminate between the learning and transfer situation and emits a response that is
inappropriate in the transfer situation. When teaching for transfer, you need to help
students establish this balance (Butterfield, Slocum and Nelson, 1992). This is
accomplished by providing students with experiences with various eliciting stimuli and
consequences so as to promote an appropriate balance between generalization and
Inductive Learning from Examples
One way to help learners to appropriately generalize and discriminate among
different stimuli is to provide learners with opportunities to respond to a variety of related
experiences, demonstrate correct responses for learners, and provide them with feedback
as to the correctness of their own responses. Gradually the learner will learn to
distinguish among and make appropriate responses to different situations. Learning about
a category of objects or events in this way, by experiencing the similarities and
differences of separate examples is called inductive learning. The process of inductive 14
learning is very natural and accounts for much of what we learn in our day-to-day
dealings with people and things.
Consider how a child learns about classrooms. Each day in school the child notes
what is similar and what is different. The child comes to understand that there are some
common characteristics of classrooms such as the types of furniture and equipment
available, and routine activities such a roll taking. She or he will expect to see these every
time she or he goes to school. She or he also comes to recognize that there are some
characteristics that are not important defining characteristics of the category such as the
color of a teacher’s dress or tie.
When the child is learning about schools and classrooms, each experience of each
school day is called a positive example while experiences with other types of events and
institutions, youth groups, church, and sporting events are negative examples. In
behavioral terms a positive example is an example where a specific response or
responses may be appropriately applied; and a negative example is an example where
the same responses would be inappropriate. Teaching someone to respond appropriately
to different situations, by providing a set of positive and negative examples with
appropriate feedback is the basic nature of inductive teaching. Here, the term response is
used in a broad sense to include actions such as:
• Correctly identifying examples of a category of objects or events. • Applying appropriate mathematical operations. • Making an appropriate pass on the basketball court. • Knowing when to use encyclopedias or dictionaries to find the answer to a
Each of the above objectives may be taught by providing the learner with
appropriate positive and negative examples. By observing the differences and similarities
among the examples a learner is able to learn when different types of actions are required.
Composing Sets of Examples
The process of providing sets of examples that may be compared and contrasted is
called juxtaposition. Engelmann and Carnine (1991) have compiled a list o...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08