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lesson (Keller, 1999; Keller & Kopp, 1987). Also, students who are already
motivated may decrease their motivation levels when they are exposed to
unnecessary motivational strategies (Song & Keller, 2001).
The fourth event is evaluation. Although motivation can be evaluated in a
number of ways Keller sees effort as the student variable that is most directly
affected by motivation (Main, 1993). As we noted in Chapter 6, effective
classroom experiences should help students perceive that their achievement is
related to the quantity and quality of student effort.
(Insert Margin Note 9.27 By Previous Paragraph.)
Keller’s categories of motivation provide general guidance on the types of
motivation strategies you might embed in your instruction. They also provide a
useful context for discussing how the principles of motivation from Chapter 6
(See Table 9.4) and various techniques discussed in other parts of this text can be
used to enhance student motivation.
Attention. In order for students to profit from instruction, they must be
interested enough to pay attention to it. Attention is generated and maintained
through perceptual arousal, inquiry arousal, and variability (Keller & Kopp, 1987;
Keller & Litchfield; 2002). These strategies also represent an application of 56 Principle 6.4: Learners are more motivated when appropriate levels of variety, choice, and surprise are incorporated into lessons.
Perceptual arousal involves gaining and maintaining student attention by the
use of novel, surprising, uncertain, incongruous, or uncertain events. For example,
as we noted in Chapter 7, you can begin a lesson with a discrepant event that the
lesson will help students understand. Students’ attention can be maintained by
providing instruction that has interest value for students. Keller (1983) observed
that students are more interested in those things that are concrete and
personalized. Because of this, we might use anecdotes and examples that connect
to their life or that are about real human beings.. This is how Paul O’Brien does
this in his 20t...
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