1 what do you want your students to learn 2 what

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Unformatted text preview: ; Ross, 1994). 1. What do you want your students to learn? 2. What types of instructional experiences will best accomplish the objectives? 3. What types of evaluation procedures will best demonstrate whether or not your students have learned? 4. What are the characteristics of your learners? Your answer to the first question should result in the educational objectives for your instruction. The answers to the second and third questions should help you design instructional activities and assessments that are matched to or aligned to your objectives. The fourth question reminds us that learner characteristics need to be considered as we identify objectives, learning activities, and assessments. Educational Objectives The various theoretical approaches to instructional design share the common assumption that instructional design is a goal directed process; instruction is designed to accomplish a purpose or intent. Therefore, developing statements of those intentions or purposes is an important component of instructional design. These statements go by a variety of names including goals, aims, intents, objectives, competencies, proformas, and learning outcomes (Cohen 5 & Manion, 1977; Langdon, 1999). For our purposes, we refer to statements of the intent or purpose of instruction as educational objectives. Behavioral Theory and Educational Objectives Behaviorists recommend that our objectives should specify the desired learning outcome in measurable terms. Their recommendation to write objectives in measurable terms is present in a number of discussions of the instructional design process (Dick & Carey, 2001; Kemp, Morrison, & Ross, 1994; Merrill, 1999). In the early 1960s, Mager (1997) developed a commonly used format for writing specific instructional objectives, which is consistent with the behavioral recommendation. A Mager-style instructional objective in has three components. First, it specifies what students will be able to do. Second, it identifies the conditions under which that beh...
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