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compose and write. (Flower & Hayes, 1981; Hayes & Flower, 1980; Hayes,
1996). 16 An information-processing analysis begins by having learners describe
how they think through a complicated mental task, or by having them think aloud
as they perform that complicated mental task (Scott & Uden, 2002; Swanson,
1993). These self-reports are converted to a flow chart or a list of steps that
describe how learners typically complete a cognitive task. Information-processing
analyses have not only been used to understand how learners accomplish
complicated mental tasks, but also to identify the strategies of more successful or
expert learners that can be taught to less successful or novice learners. This is how
Marion Woo applies this idea. “When I am trying to think of some learning strategies to teach my
students, I begin by asking myself what I would do to succeed, or what
some of my more successful students have done.”
Constructivism and Task Analysis
Constructivist approaches to instructional design are typically based on the
assumption that learning needs to occur in authentic, problem-solving contexts. In
order to design instruction that situates learning in authentic contexts, you would
need to understand those contexts. There are a number of ways that task analysis
could be used to understand learning contexts.
First, task analysis could be used to develop a meaningful understanding
of the activity structures that define a context of practice (Jonassen, Tessmer &
Hannum, 1999). In essence this is an understanding of the types of problems that 17 need to be solved in a particular context, and how practitioners operate within a
context to solve those problems. You would analyze the context in terms of the
goals of an activity within a context, the tools used in accomplishing those goals,
and the motives, characteristics, problem-solving strategies, and required
knowledge of practitioners in that context. For example, if the goal were to design
learning contexts that simulate the problem solving of geologists in th...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible