16 an information processing analysis begins by

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Unformatted text preview: reviewing as they compose and write. (Flower & Hayes, 1981; Hayes & Flower, 1980; Hayes, 1996). 16 An information-processing analysis begins by having learners describe how they think through a complicated mental task, or by having them think aloud as they perform that complicated mental task (Scott & Uden, 2002; Swanson, 1993). These self-reports are converted to a flow chart or a list of steps that describe how learners typically complete a cognitive task. Information-processing analyses have not only been used to understand how learners accomplish complicated mental tasks, but also to identify the strategies of more successful or expert learners that can be taught to less successful or novice learners. This is how Marion Woo applies this idea. “When I am trying to think of some learning strategies to teach my students, I begin by asking myself what I would do to succeed, or what some of my more successful students have done.” Constructivism and Task Analysis Constructivist approaches to instructional design are typically based on the assumption that learning needs to occur in authentic, problem-solving contexts. In order to design instruction that situates learning in authentic contexts, you would need to understand those contexts. There are a number of ways that task analysis could be used to understand learning contexts. First, task analysis could be used to develop a meaningful understanding of the activity structures that define a context of practice (Jonassen, Tessmer & Hannum, 1999). In essence this is an understanding of the types of problems that 17 need to be solved in a particular context, and how practitioners operate within a context to solve those problems. You would analyze the context in terms of the goals of an activity within a context, the tools used in accomplishing those goals, and the motives, characteristics, problem-solving strategies, and required knowledge of practitioners in that context. For example, if the goal were to design learning contexts that simulate the problem solving of geologists in th...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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