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Unformatted text preview: erything on a pre-test.. Here is how 41 Octavio Morales does some informal pre-testing with his kindergartners early in
⇒ “When children come into my class on the first day of class, I greet
them and tell them I have a hook for their jackets and a cubicle with
their names under it for their other stuff. I ask them to see if they can
find them. This way I know if they can recognize their own name in
Principle 3.3: The Limitations of Students’ Working Memory
The issue of limited working memory capacity also figures prominently in
Gagne+ s discussions of conditions of learning. For example, Gagne+ recommends
that you present verbal information in short and manageable chunks. Also, pace
instruction so that students have time to rehearse and understand information
during your lessons. Here is how Susan Moreno addresses this with her seventh
grade social studies students.
⇒ ‘When I prepare to teach a unit on American history, I look over the
list of events and terms at the end of the chapter. I find ways to group
topics so that we are focusing on a few events each day with plenty of
time for practice activities and review.”
An understanding of working memory limitations is also important for
intellectual skill learning. Some procedures involve a large number of steps or
decisions, some rules have complicated conditions for their use, and some 42 concepts are very broad. Teach complicated procedures in chunks or parts, and
focus on a limited number of concept examples and non-examples at one time
when teaching a broad concept. Some complex intellectual skill learning requires
that the sub-skills be coordinated and integrated. In that case, it may be better to
teach the whole skill, but to use simple applications of that skill at first (van
Merrienboer, Clark, & De Croock, 2002). Worked examples that show the
sequence of steps for applying a skill can also be useful for managing working
memory load (Sweller & Cooper, 1985).
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible