4 learners are incongruity uncertainty more motivated

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Unformatted text preview: ant previously learned skills. The steps need to be demonstrated or modeled. Focus students’ attention on the distinctive features of the procedure being learned. Rules or rationales provided for each step. Students practice the steps in the procedure with feedback and varied examples requiring the procedure. Provide sufficient retrieval cues Allow for effective practice: Allow every student to participate and to receive feedback. Align practice to how students need to recall or apply the procedure. Provide practice in varied contexts and distributed over time. 71 Table 9.4. ARCS categories, sub-categories and principles of motivation. ARCS ARCS Sub-categories/Strategies Motivation Principle Category Attention -Perceptual Arousal (Surprise, Principle 6.4: Learners are Incongruity, Uncertainty) more motivated when -Inquiry Arousal (Stimulate Curiosity) appropriate levels of -Variability (Variety in Methods and variety, choice, and surprise Activities) are incorporated into lessons. Relevance -Goal Orientation (Present the Objectives) Principle 6.2: Learners are -Motive Matching (Students’ Needs and more motivated by Motives) activities that appeal to their -Familiarity (Relate to Students’ personal needs, desires and Experience and Values) interests. Principle 6.3: Learners are more motivated when they have specific near-term goals that they believe are important. Confidence -Learning Requirements (Inform students Principle 6.1: Learners are of perfo...
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