57 variability refers to the importance of varying

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Unformatted text preview: h century American history class. ⇒ “My students find it interesting that I was alive and experienced what they are studying in the latter half of the 20th century. They like it when I tell them what it was like when I was their age.” Inquiry arousal stimulates information-seeking behavior in students by posing questions or problems for them to investigate. A number of constructivist strategies such as discovery learning, inquiry training, and problem-based learning employ this process. During a teacher directed lesson, inquiry arousal can be addressed by asking questions that require students to transfer what they are learning to novel situations. 57 Variability refers to the importance of varying instructional experiences for students. To accomplish this, you will need to be comfortable with various modes of instruction. Technology can also be helpful because of its ability to rapidly vary visual images and experiences. Remember, however, that too much variability might confuse rather than motivate. You should vary instructional activities at points in the lesson that make sense. For example, you could switch to group work when having students work together accomplishes your instructional goals. Relevance. Relevance may be the most important of the four categories for enhancing students’ motivation (Means, Jonassen, & Dwyer, 1997). Relevance can be demonstrated through the strategies of familiarity, goal orientation, and motive matching (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Keller & Litchfield, 2002). Relevance strategies provide examples of applications of Principle 6.2: Learners are more motivated by activities that appeal to their personal needs, desires and interests and Principle 6.3: Learners are more motivated when they have specific near-term goals that they believe are important. Familiarity can be accomplished by connecting learning to students’ own experiences (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Small, 1997). As you may remember from Chapter 3, learning is more meaningful if it can...
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