Unformatted text preview: be related to students’ prior
knowledge and experience. These connections can be accomplished by using
familiar language and concrete experiences, by creating analogies between new 58 learning and students’ prior experiences, by embedding instruction in authentic or
familiar situations, and by using human interest examples (Means, Jonassen, &
Dwyer, 1997). Given how diverse students’ backgrounds are, teachers will also
need to consider the use of multiple examples.
Goal orientation is accomplished by providing students with a sense of the
purpose and usefulness for the instruction and some suggestions for how to
accomplish those purposes (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Small, 1997). A number of
ideas discussed throughout this text are useful here. You can help students
identify task value for what they are learning, or relate the lesson to possible longterm goals. You can also help students develop the metacognitive skills necessary
to identify strategies that match their goals.
Motive matching is a process of identifying student’s needs and motives
and providing instruction that addresses them (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Keller &
Litchfield, 2002). For example, students’ belonging need and their affiliation
motive can be addressed by providing opportunities for students to work together
through strategies such as cooperative learning and problem-based learning.
Students’ power and self-determination needs can be met by providing
opportunities for students to have some control over what they experience in the
classroom. For example, plan opportunities for students to make decisions about
what is learned and/or how learning will occur. John O’Brien does it this way in
his junior high school English classes. 59 ⇒ ‘“I try to let my students write about topics they choose within
broad guidelines or categories that I provide them.”
Confidence. Students may avoid interesting and desired goals if they feel
they lack the competence to achieve those goals Keller & Kopp, 1987).
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