Unformatted text preview: specify the behaviors students
are to learn, and the conditions under which they must demonstrate those
behaviors (Gropper, 1983). A performance analysis should yield specific,
Principle 2.2: The Learning Is Gradual and Step by Step.
Gropper (1983) suggests that complicated behaviors such as learning to
read can be broken down into component behaviors. Gropper’s (1983) through a
skill analysis. A skill analysis is a form of procedural analysis used to analyze
complicated behaviors into these component behaviors. 19 • Discrimination: Students can distinguish between related stimuli or
responses. For example, they can differentiate between fungi and
algae. • Generalization: Students are able to respond in the same way to a
class of stimuli. For example, a student recognizes that a right triangle
and equilateral triangle are both triangles. • Association: Students can connect a response with a stimulus. For
example, students know that the letter “t” makes the “tuh” sound. • Chain: Students can connect a number of stimulus-response units
together. For example, students know how to decode a word by
combining the sounds of the different letters.
Principle 2.3: The Effects of Stimuli on Responses. In general, Gropper (1983) views instruction as the process of establishing
stimulus control. As you remember from Chapter 2, stimulus control occurs when
students learn that if they emit a behavior in the presence of a particular
antecedent, they will be rewarded. In establishing stimulus control, both criterion
stimuli and cues need to be identified.
Criterion stimuli are the stimuli that must gain control over a response by
the time instruction is finished. These stimuli are established as part of the
performance analysis of a goal, and they represent how students will be asked to
demonstrate their learning. Examples might include students being able to 20 respond to a particular type of test question, or being able write an essay, or being
able to c...
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