A performance analysis should yield specific

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Unformatted text preview: specify the behaviors students are to learn, and the conditions under which they must demonstrate those behaviors (Gropper, 1983). A performance analysis should yield specific, measurable objectives. Principle 2.2: The Learning Is Gradual and Step by Step. Gropper (1983) suggests that complicated behaviors such as learning to read can be broken down into component behaviors. Gropper’s (1983) through a skill analysis. A skill analysis is a form of procedural analysis used to analyze complicated behaviors into these component behaviors. 19 • Discrimination: Students can distinguish between related stimuli or responses. For example, they can differentiate between fungi and algae. • Generalization: Students are able to respond in the same way to a class of stimuli. For example, a student recognizes that a right triangle and equilateral triangle are both triangles. • Association: Students can connect a response with a stimulus. For example, students know that the letter “t” makes the “tuh” sound. • Chain: Students can connect a number of stimulus-response units together. For example, students know how to decode a word by combining the sounds of the different letters. Principle 2.3: The Effects of Stimuli on Responses. In general, Gropper (1983) views instruction as the process of establishing stimulus control. As you remember from Chapter 2, stimulus control occurs when students learn that if they emit a behavior in the presence of a particular antecedent, they will be rewarded. In establishing stimulus control, both criterion stimuli and cues need to be identified. Criterion stimuli are the stimuli that must gain control over a response by the time instruction is finished. These stimuli are established as part of the performance analysis of a goal, and they represent how students will be asked to demonstrate their learning. Examples might include students being able to 20 respond to a particular type of test question, or being able write an essay, or being able to c...
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