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Although the events of instruction are important

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Unformatted text preview: rk that can be applied to different ways of teaching specific knowledge outcomes. (Dempsey & Van Eck, 2002). Gagne+ s Conditions of Learning Gagne+ s theory of instructional design is based to a large extent on the assumption that different learning outcomes require somewhat different instructional experiences (Spector, 2001). Although the events of instruction are important components of any lesson, the conditions of learning describe how these events can be modified or adapted for different types of learning outcomes. Conditions for verbal information. In designing instruction for verbal information, a number of conditions of learning should be considered (Driscoll, 1994; Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). First, because verbal information is often presented in the form of extended discourse such a book chapter, a lecture, or a 33 film, we should help students differentiate between important and unimportant information. To accomplish this, written material can provide devices such as headings, italics, bold print, margin notes, and repetition (Mayer, 1999). Summaries of main ideas have also been found useful in focusing students on key informational points (Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars & Tapangco, 1996). As we noted in Chapter 7, teachers can help students select important information by providing objectives or adjunct questions. Providing a meaningful context for learning is a second important condition of learning for verbal information (Smith & Ragan, 1993). This primarily involves helping students connect what they are learning to prior experiences and knowledge, but it may also involve teaching information in terms of its use. Teachers or written materials can provide questions that ask students to elaborate on the information being presented (Mayer, 1980). Teachers can also introduce information in the context of problem-solving activities (Yelon, 1996). For example, students could learn information about how bills become law as part of a legislative simulation....
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