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Unformatted text preview: involved in learning and transferring problem-solving strategies such as the
scientific method would, however, require the use of numerous nonroutine
treatments. 27 Information-Processing Theory and Instructional Design
.Although there are a number of instructional design approaches that
reflect the influence of cognitive learning theory, Robert Gagne+ (1985) has
developed one of the more widely used instructional design theories from a
cognitive perspective (Smith & Ragan, 1993). Gagne+ s theory can be
conceptualized as consisting of these three main components (Driscoll, 2002).
• A classification system for types of knowledge or learning outcomes. • General events of instruction. • Specific conditions of learning for the different types of learning
outcomes. As we have done with other applications of cognitive theory, we will show how
these components reflect the cognitive learning principles from Chapter 3.
Principle 3.4: Learning is an Active Goal-Directed Process.
Gagne+ s (1985) approach to instructional design begins with a goal
analysis that typically includes a procedural task analysis and learning hierarchy
analysis of the goal, and a determination of the type of learning outcomes
contained in the instructional goal (Dick & Carey, 2001; Gagne+ , 1985; Gagne+ ,
Briggs & Wager, 1992; Smith & Ragan, 1993). Identifying the type of learning
outcome is a key component of Gagne+ s theory because instruction is designed
that aligns to a particular type of learning outcome.
Gagne+ s Categories of Learning Outcomes 28 Gagne+ s system for categorizing learning outcomes is one of several
attempts to develop classifications systems for types of knowledge (Anderson,
1987; Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill & Kratwohl, 1956; Merrill, 1983). However,
Gagne+ s (1985) categories are probably the most widely used by instructional
designers, and to some extent other categorical systems share important
similarities with Gagne+ s system (Reigeluth & Moore,...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
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