This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: ncy-value view of
motivation (Dempsey & Burke, 1998). As you remember from Chapter 6,
expectancy-value theory describes levels of motivation in terms of learners’
expectations for success and the value they place on that success. Table 9.4
(appears at the end of the chapter) contains the categories and sub-categories of 54 ARCS, and how they relate to the principles of motivation developed in Chapter
Using the ARCS model in designing instruction is a four step process
(Keller & Kopp, 1987). First, an audience evaluation is conducted to determine
which motivational strategies to include in instruction. An audience evaluation
considers the characteristics of their learners and their attitudes toward the content
and the lesson delivery modes that have been selected (Keller, 1999b; Song &
Keller, 2001). The goal is to identify the motivational strategies that best address
the needs of the learners. For example, if your students lack confidence in their
mathematics skills, then emphasis would be placed on strategies that enhance
The second event is the preparation of motivational objectives, which
specify the behaviors you want to observe as indicators of changes in students’
motivation. For example, if your goal is to increase confidence, you might
observe for an increase in students’ persistence on difficult tasks, or you might
observe for an increase in positive expectancy statements from students.
The third event is the selection of strategies. Motivational strategies
should be time and resource efficient, supportive of the instructional objectives,
acceptable to the audience, and compatible with the lesson delivery system and
teachers’ personal style. You should remember that the intent is not necessarily to
address all categories or sub-categories, but only those that are relevant to your 55 audience and objectives. In fact, unnecessary motivational strategies can distract
students from the lesson goal, and can significantly increase...
View Full Document
This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible