This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: ortant cognitive and affective
outcomes? • Are your objectives aligned to state standards and/or district and
school curricular goals?. • Are your objectives consistent with sound principles of learning and
motivation? For example, do you take students’ needs and prior
knowledge into account? Are your objectives likely to lead to longterm retention of meaningful information? 9 • Are your objectives realistic given the nature of your students and the
time you have to accomplish those objectives? Can you differentiate
between essential objectives and useful but optional objectives?
Instructional Alignment Instructional alignment occurs when the decisions concerning instructional activities and evaluation support the achievement of desired learning
outcomes (Cohen, 1987, 1995; Walker, 1998). Once objectives or desired learning
outcomes are identified, lessons or learning environments are designed that have
the best chance of producing those outcomes and evaluations are selected or
designed that tell whether or not the objective has been met. Instructional
alignment implies that different types of learning outcomes are likely to need
different lesson designs and evaluation approaches.
As an example of alignment decisions, assume that your objective is to
teach students how to prepare a microscope slide. What types of instructional
experiences are aligned to that simple objective? Your students would probably
find it useful to see the process demonstrated in some way, and to be given a
chance to practice what they have learned with feedback. An aligned assessment
for preparing a microscope slide would involve something like giving the students
the necessary equipment and seeing if they can prepare a slide.
Although instructional alignment originates from a behavioral view of
learning, it is an important consideration in almost all instructional design 10 approaches. For example, if your goal is to have students transfer what they have
learned to real-life situations, then the instruction should provide experiences with
real-world or aut...
View Full Document
- Spring '08
- The Bible