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Chapter 9 - 1 CHAPTER 9 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN The teachers...

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1 CHAPTER 9 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN The teachers must deal with the practical issues related to the instructional design process. As a teacher, you will be involved in the instructional design process when you plan lessons, units, or instructional programs for your students or when you evaluate the design of prepackaged instructional programs. Consequently, instructional design is one more example of your role as a decision-maker. Your instructional design decisions will be influenced by a number of variables including the nature of your students, the existence of mandated testing programs, and the values and beliefs of parents and other members of your community. Effective instructional design, therefore, requires not only the skilled use of design principles and techniques, but also your ability to consider your teaching context in making decisions. Chapter Organization and Objectives We begin with a discussion of the overall nature of the instructional design process because there are certain instructional design considerations and techniques that are relevant regardless of your theoretical approach to instructional design. We then present different views of instructional design that have their basis in learning and motivation theories presented earlier in the text. .
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2 As we have done in previous chapters, we will show how these instructional design approaches can be connected to key theoretical principles developed in those chapters. By the end of this chapter you should be able to do the following. Understand the role and nature of educational objectives. Understand the importance of instructional alignment and task analysis for instructional design. Understand the role of learner characteristics in instructional design. Understand the key elements of Gropper’s behavioral approach to instructional design. Understand the key elements of Gagne’s conditions of learning. Understand the components involved in the design of a constructivist learning environment. Understand the relevance of ARCS for designing motivating instruction. The General Nature of the Instructional Design Process The instructional design models presented in this chapter can be placed in one of two broad categories. Instructional design models in the first category operate from the assumption that there are specific behaviors, knowledge, and beliefs that must be learned, and that there are different instructional strategies or conditions that work best for each type of knowledge and behavior (Spector,
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3 2000; Reiser, 2001; Willis, 1998). For example, these models might specify the components of an effectively designed lesson for teaching a specific skill or concept. Both behavioral and cognitive learning theories have provided examples of these models (Gagne ʹஒ , 1985; Gropper, 1983; Merrill, 2001). Also, the ARCS model for applying motivation theory to instructional design fits in this category (Keller & Litchfield, 2002) Instructional design models in the second category provide
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