Unformatted text preview: ts are asked to learn higher-order rules or to problem solve
through their explorations and inventions, these explorations often pose
considerable memory load (Land, 2000). As we have discussed earlier in this text,
technology can be useful for off-loading some of that cognitive load.
Constructivist Perspectives on Instructional Design
Behavioral and information-processing approaches to instructional design
focus on teaching specific types of knowledge. Constructivists, on the other hand,
focus on the design of instructional environments that allow students to construct
understandings. Effectively designed constructivist learning environments
encourage students to engage in the active process of developing meaning through
authentic learning experiences and interactions with others (Tan & Hung, 2002).
Our discussion of how to design these environments is framed around the
principles developed in Chapter 5. 43 The Cognitive Developmental Basis For Constructivism
As you learned in Chapter 5, educational constructivism has connections
to the cognitive developmental theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner and the
philosophy of John Dewey among others. These influences are reflected in
Principle 5.2: Learning Experiences are More Effective if They Take into
Account the Cognitive Developmental Levels of the Learners. The
implications of this principle for instructional design are reflected in the idea of
developmentally appropriate practice.
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is an approach to
designing classroom learning environments that bases educational decisions on
available knowledge about students and how they develop (Gestwicki, 1999).
Although DAP can be applied across all grade levels, it has been a particularly
influential idea in early childhood education. Figure 9. 1 provides an overview of
DAP principles abstracted from different sources (Bredekemp et al, 1992;
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYP), 1996a,
1996b, 1996c). A number of the DAP principle...
View Full Document