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Constructivists on the other hand focus on the design

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Unformatted text preview: ts are asked to learn higher-order rules or to problem solve through their explorations and inventions, these explorations often pose considerable memory load (Land, 2000). As we have discussed earlier in this text, technology can be useful for off-loading some of that cognitive load. Constructivist Perspectives on Instructional Design Behavioral and information-processing approaches to instructional design focus on teaching specific types of knowledge. Constructivists, on the other hand, focus on the design of instructional environments that allow students to construct understandings. Effectively designed constructivist learning environments encourage students to engage in the active process of developing meaning through authentic learning experiences and interactions with others (Tan & Hung, 2002). Our discussion of how to design these environments is framed around the principles developed in Chapter 5. 43 The Cognitive Developmental Basis For Constructivism As you learned in Chapter 5, educational constructivism has connections to the cognitive developmental theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner and the philosophy of John Dewey among others. These influences are reflected in Principle 5.2: Learning Experiences are More Effective if They Take into Account the Cognitive Developmental Levels of the Learners. The implications of this principle for instructional design are reflected in the idea of developmentally appropriate practice. Developmentally Appropriate Practice Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is an approach to designing classroom learning environments that bases educational decisions on available knowledge about students and how they develop (Gestwicki, 1999). Although DAP can be applied across all grade levels, it has been a particularly influential idea in early childhood education. Figure 9. 1 provides an overview of DAP principles abstracted from different sources (Bredekemp et al, 1992; National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYP), 1996a, 1996b, 1996c). A number of the DAP principle...
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