Cues are instructional applications such as lectures

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Unformatted text preview: onstruct a birdhouse with provided materials. A cue is an instructional stimulus that helps establish stimulus control for the criterion stimulus. Cues are instructional applications such as lectures, demonstrations, hints, directions, and visual aids. For example, dotted letters on a penmanship paper are cues that help students form letters correctly until they are able to form the letters correctly on their own. Instructional design is the process of arranging cues into instructional treatments that are most effective for establishing stimulus control for the criterion stimulus. Instructional Treatments For Gropper (1983) instructional treatments are cues that are effective for teaching a particular type of behavior. Routine treatments are the generic formats for teaching facts, skills, or concepts. Nonroutine treatments are modifications and extensions made to routine treatments if the behavior to be learned is especially complicated or difficult. Treatments for learning facts. A fact is a statement of association between two things (Kemp, Morrison & Ross, 1994). The learning of facts requires students to learn multiple S-R connections and to recall those connections at a later date. For example, young children may need to memorize the capitals of the 50 states, or the formula for finding the circumference of a 21 circle. Older students might be asked to memorize important historical events and dates or definitions for terminology. The routine treatments for teaching facts consist of the following two components. Students need to be told or shown what the facts are, and they need to practice and review the facts either by stating or applying the facts, or both. These routine treatments can be done in a number of ways. For example, students can read about facts in a text, see them in a movie or on a web site, or have them explained in a lecture. The practice and review can also occur in a number of ways (Kemp, Morrison & Ross, 1994). Students could covertly rehearse the facts by saying them to themselves, they could wri...
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