Unformatted text preview: or increasing students’ satisfaction with their learning (Alderman, 1999;
Good & Brophy, 2001).
• Exogenous incentives should be tied to performance, rather than to
participation. For example, incentives can be provided for students’
improvement. • Exogenous rewards are more powerful if the students have a clear
sense of their goal and strategies for meeting that goal. Incentives are
unlikely to be experienced if students do not know how to earn them. • Incentives should be plentiful and available to all learners. All learners
in a classroom should feel that they have a chance to earn the
incentives offered. • Feedback should be immediate or timely, and it should also help
students identify what they are doing successfully and what needs to
be improved. Equity strategies are concerned with fairness and consistency of
evaluation standards. Make sure that your evaluation approaches align to what
you have communicated that students need to learn, and make sure that once 63 standards are established that they are applied consistently. Checklists and rating
scales that are used consistently can be very important in this regard.
Educational Objectives p.# Routine Treatments p. # Mager-Style Instructional Objective Nonroutine Treatments p. #
Cognitive Objective p # Fact p. # Instructional Alignment p.# Concept p. # No Child Left Behind p.# Attitudes p. # Learner Analysis p.# Psychomotor Skills p. # Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Cognitive Strategies p. #
Task Analysis p. # Events of Instruction p. # Procedural Analysis p. # Developmentally Appropriate
Practice P.# Learning Hierarchy Analysis p. # Ill-Defined Problems p.# Information-processing Analysis p. # Supporting Tools p. # Performance Analysis p.# Artifact p.# Skill Analysis p. # Exhibition p.# 64 Criterion Stimulus p. # ARCS p. # Cue p. # Additional Readings
Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2001). The systematic design of instruction
(5thed.) New York: Longman.
Gagne + , R. M. (1985). Conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart,
Gestwicki, C. (1999). Developmentally appropriate practice curriculum and
development in ear...
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