Unformatted text preview: nts’ mental processes. Effective
instruction helps students engage in the mental processes necessary for the
acquisition of the knowledge implied in the learning goal. These ideas form the 31 basis for the final two components of Gagne+ s theory, the events of instruction
and the conditions of learning.
Gagne+ s Events of Instruction
The events of instruction are nine instructional conditions that need to be
considered when planning any lesson (Driscoll, 2002). They are designed to
support internal mental processes such as attention, selective perception,
encoding, and retrieval. The nine events of instruction include the following.
• Gaining learners’ attention • Informing learner of the instructional objective or intent. • Stimulating the recall of prior learning • Presenting the instructional stimulus • Providing learning guidance • Eliciting performance • Providing feedback • Assessing performance • Enhancing retention and transfer of learning For each of these events, instructional designers have identified various actions
teachers can take when implementing each event (Branch, 1997; Gagne+ , Briggs
& Wager, 1992; Gagne+ & Medsker, 1996; Orey, Okey, Jones, & Stanley, 1991).
Table 9.2 (appears at the end of the table) provides examples of these actions for
each event. 32 Although the nine events of instruction can be interpreted as a sequence of
events in a teacher directed lesson, they also can be viewed as components of any
approach to instruction. For example, the events of instruction have been
observed in cooperative learning and in technology-assisted math instruction
(House, 2002; Flynn, 1992). They also have been used to design instruction in
virtual classrooms, to demonstrate how culturally appropriate instruction can be
designed, and are compatible with important elements of constructivist
instructional design (Branch, 1997; Johnston, 2000; Richey, 1996). One way to
think about the events of instruction is as a framewo...
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