Gagne s events of instruction the events of

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Unformatted text preview: nts’ mental processes. Effective instruction helps students engage in the mental processes necessary for the acquisition of the knowledge implied in the learning goal. These ideas form the 31 basis for the final two components of Gagne+ s theory, the events of instruction and the conditions of learning. Gagne+ s Events of Instruction The events of instruction are nine instructional conditions that need to be considered when planning any lesson (Driscoll, 2002). They are designed to support internal mental processes such as attention, selective perception, encoding, and retrieval. The nine events of instruction include the following. • Gaining learners’ attention • Informing learner of the instructional objective or intent. • Stimulating the recall of prior learning • Presenting the instructional stimulus • Providing learning guidance • Eliciting performance • Providing feedback • Assessing performance • Enhancing retention and transfer of learning For each of these events, instructional designers have identified various actions teachers can take when implementing each event (Branch, 1997; Gagne+ , Briggs & Wager, 1992; Gagne+ & Medsker, 1996; Orey, Okey, Jones, & Stanley, 1991). Table 9.2 (appears at the end of the table) provides examples of these actions for each event. 32 Although the nine events of instruction can be interpreted as a sequence of events in a teacher directed lesson, they also can be viewed as components of any approach to instruction. For example, the events of instruction have been observed in cooperative learning and in technology-assisted math instruction (House, 2002; Flynn, 1992). They also have been used to design instruction in virtual classrooms, to demonstrate how culturally appropriate instruction can be designed, and are compatible with important elements of constructivist instructional design (Branch, 1997; Johnston, 2000; Richey, 1996). One way to think about the events of instruction is as a framewo...
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