Historically this question has been addressed by

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Unformatted text preview: d which students possess that needed background? Historically, this question has been addressed by consulting records of previous performance or by pre-testing. • What are my students’ attitudes toward the content and potential delivery modes? Your answer to this question can influence your choice of content and delivery mode. However, you may have to teach content or use delivery modes that your students may not like. In those cases, you would pay closer attention to motivational issues in your design decisions. 12 • What are the key academic motivation issues need to be addressed? Later in the chapter we will consider this issue in more detail. • What are the educational and ability levels of the students? In today’s inclusion classrooms, this would include an analysis of the needs of your students with disabilities. • What are my students’ general learning preferences? This is when you would consider students’ learning styles and whether it’s more useful to match instruction to style or have students develop new ways of learning. • What are the group characteristics of my learners? Are they relatively homogeneous or heterogeneous in terms of variables such as gender, ethnicity, and culture? This is when you would consider how to accommodate the diverse backgrounds of your students. A learner analysis helps you identify what modifications you may need to make in order to accommodate the needs of your learners. It does not, however, provide specific guidance on how to design instruction to meet the needs of various learners. The discussion of universal design of instruction contained in Focus on Learner Diversity 9.1 may provide some initial recommendations in this area. 13 Task Analysis Task analysis is an important instructional design tool that can help you with the decisions you need to make in answering the four instructional design questions introduced at the beginning of this section. Task analysis is the process of explicitly identifying the subtasks, information flow, inputs, and/or decisions required...
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