Chapter 9

# I actually have constructed a game board with lights

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Unformatted text preview: te the facts, or they could respond to questions about the facts. Paul O’Neill likes to use games to rehearse facts with his high school history classes. ⇒ “I actually have constructed a game board with lights and light switches. The students compete as members of a team to answer questions first. They try to be the first one to turn their light on and get a question right.” Nonroutine treatments are planned when you anticipate that the factual learning will be difficult for students. The learning of facts can be complicated by a number of factors. In general, the number of facts to be learned affects difficulty. Also, competition between new and old S-R connections influences difficulty. For example, learning the definition of negative reinforcement can be 22 difficult because of prior associations students form for the word negative. Finally, similarity among facts may provide additional difficulty. For example the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle can easily be confused. These issues can be addressed through nonroutine treatments such as presenting a few facts at a time, and designing practice that draws students’ attention to the differences between similar facts. For example, you could include cues in your lesson design such as different color chalk for different ideas, or you could underline or otherwise highlight key differences between definitions. You could present two easily confused facts at different times, and make sure the first fact is learned well before presenting the next. You could also provide students with mnemonics (an information-processing strategy) for difficult to remember facts (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1991; Raschke, Alper, & Eggers, 1999). Treatments for concept learning. A concept is a categorical idea that is used to represent a group of items, ideas, or relationships that share common attributes (Kemp, Morrison and Ross, 1994). For example, a triangle is a concept that includes geometric shapes with three enclosed sides, and a mam...
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