Unformatted text preview: te the facts, or they could respond to
questions about the facts. Paul O’Neill likes to use games to rehearse facts with
his high school history classes.
⇒ “I actually have constructed a game board with lights and light
switches. The students compete as members of a team to answer
questions first. They try to be the first one to turn their light on and get
a question right.”
Nonroutine treatments are planned when you anticipate that the factual
learning will be difficult for students. The learning of facts can be complicated by
a number of factors. In general, the number of facts to be learned affects
difficulty. Also, competition between new and old S-R connections influences
difficulty. For example, learning the definition of negative reinforcement can be 22 difficult because of prior associations students form for the word negative.
Finally, similarity among facts may provide additional difficulty. For example the
formulas for the area and circumference of a circle can easily be confused.
These issues can be addressed through nonroutine treatments such as
presenting a few facts at a time, and designing practice that draws students’
attention to the differences between similar facts. For example, you could include
cues in your lesson design such as different color chalk for different ideas, or you
could underline or otherwise highlight key differences between definitions. You
could present two easily confused facts at different times, and make sure the first
fact is learned well before presenting the next. You could also provide students
with mnemonics (an information-processing strategy) for difficult to remember
facts (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1991; Raschke, Alper, & Eggers, 1999).
Treatments for concept learning. A concept is a categorical idea that is
used to represent a group of items, ideas, or relationships that share common
attributes (Kemp, Morrison and Ross, 1994). For example, a triangle is a concept
that includes geometric shapes with three enclosed sides, and a mam...
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