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Unformatted text preview: hentic applications (Walker, 1998). If your goal is to create selfdirected learners, then environments need to be developed that support that goal,
and evaluation methods should be developed to assess students’ levels of selfdirectedness.
It is also important to note that current discussions of alignment are often
framed in terms of meeting district and state objectives or standards (Downey,
2001; Wilson, 2002). This view of alignment is important because students are
held accountable for these standards and goals on high-stakes testing such as
graduation examinations (See Enriching Your Understanding 9.1)
As a final observation, effective instructional alignment requires careful
consideration of what your students need to learn, because it is possible to
develop well-aligned lessons for trivial or unimportant objectives. Also,
alignment requires a pretty thorough understanding of what an objective requires
Learner Characteristics and Instructional Design
When designing instruction, teachers need to consider the characteristics
of their learners. The nature of your learners can affect the objectives you select,
how you teach, and how you assess. In our discussion of learner characteristics,
we will work from the assumption that teachers often have a common set of 11 objectives that they need to accomplish with all of their students. For example, all
students need to learn to solve algebraic equations or how to read. The issue in
this case is how can teachers provide instruction that allows students who differ
from each other in significant ways to meet those objectives?
A learner analysis is one way to consider your learners’ characteristics
in the instructional design process (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001). Although some
of Dick, Carey, and Carey’s recommendations for conducting a learner analysis
are more relevant for instructional design professionals, a number of their
suggestions provide useful questions for classroom teachers to ask about their
• What entry behaviors, prerequisite skills, or prior knowledge are
required by this lesson, an...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible