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Unformatted text preview: by learners to perform a learning task (Seels & Glasgow, 1998). In
general, task analysis is the process of identifying the component parts of a
complex task (Alberto & Troutman, 1999; Wolfe, 1998). Although task analysis
is also usually associated with behavioral learning theory, it may be the single
most important process of any approach to instructional design (Jonassen,
Tessmer & Hannum, 1999).
Behavioral Learning Theory and Task Analysis
The behavioral view of chaining is that complicated behaviors consist of a
sequence of discrete behaviors that are linked or chained together. The effective
teaching of complicated behaviors requires teachers to identify the individual
behaviors in a chain. Procedural analysis and learning hierarchy analysis are two
forms of task analysis that can be used to identify the links in behavioral chains.
Together they help you decide how a particular behavior is performed, and the
required prerequisite behaviors for the target behavior.
Procedural analysis. Procedural analysis results in a sequence of steps
for completing a particular task. To complete a procedural analysis, simply list the 14 component skills or steps of a complicated behavior in a sequence that leads to
successful execution of that behavior (Parsons & Reid, 1999). For example, a
sequence of steps for multiplying fractions or the steps for changing a flat tire
would be procedural analyses for those tasks.
The goal of a procedural analysis is to gain an understanding of how a
particular learning task is done. By identifying the component parts of a complex
task, you can make sure that important components or steps are not left out of
instruction (Wolfe, 1998). Also, a procedural analysis can help you plan
assessments to determine which component parts students have mastered or still
need to learn (Reeves & Stein, 1999).
Learning hierarchy analysis. In general, a learning hierarchy analysis
is the process of identifying the sequence of prerequisite skills and knowledge for
a particular learning t...
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