Informing the learner of provide statements of the

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Unformatted text preview: tional Rule: If the Litmus paper turns red, then the solution must be an acid. Procedural Rule: Students’ ability to apply the steps in balancing a chemical equation 66 novel situations. They are the basis for problem-solving 67 Table 9.2. Implementing the events of instruction. Learners’ Mental Process Event of Instruction or Mental State Attention Expectancy Retrieval of Relevant Prior Knowledge to Working Memory. Pattern recognition and Selective Attention Chunking, Rehearsal, Encoding Retrieval. Responding Reinforcement, Error Correction Responding, Retention Retrieval, Transfer Examples of Teacher Actions Gaining Attention Vary stimulus properties (e. g. intensity, color, format). Connect lesson content’ to students’ interests and needs. Informing the Learner of Provide statements of the Objective instructional goals. Provide inserted or adjunct questions. Provide an example of the desired outcome or use of the lesson content. Stimulating the recall of Review prerequisites skills Prior Learning or concepts. Provide advance organizers Engage students in K-W-L Presenting the Stimulus Select instructional stimuli that are aligned to the learning outcome. Providing Learner Guidance Determine how much independence you want from the learner. Provide cues, scaffolding, and coaching. Eliciting Performance Provide opportunities for practice and application. Providing Feedback Provide informational feedback. Schedule guided practice. Assessing Performance Select aligned assessments. Enhancing Retention and Provide a variety of Transfer contexts for practice. Provide opportunities for students to reflect on their 68 own learning. Figure 9.1. Principles of developmentally appropriate practice. • There is no one right way to implement DAP, but instruction and curriculum should be matched to the needs of the learner. • Learning should stress the development of conceptual understandings and strategies, rather than the acquisition of isolated facts and skills. • Students benefit...
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