Make sure your instructional design includes clear

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Unformatted text preview: should help students believe that with effort they can succeed. This is accomplished through the strategies of learning requirements (expectancy for success), success opportunities (challenge setting), and personal responsibility (attribution modeling) (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Small, 1997). These strategies represent an application of Principle 6.1: Learners are more motivated when they believe their actions will result in the successful completion of challenging tasks and Principle 6.3: Learners are more motivated when they have specific near-term goals that they believe are important. Learning requirements are communicated by informing students about performance requirements and how these requirements will be evaluated. Make sure your instructional design includes clear statements of your expectations for success, and the requirements students need to meet. For example, if you have a scoring rubric for a project, allow students to see that rubric as they plan their efforts. Also, make sure that the evaluations you design are logical and well aligned to your objectives so that students can predict how they will be evaluated. 60 Success opportunities remind us that if students are to build an expectation for success, they must experience success. As you remember from Chapter 6, this success should be at meaningful tasks with an appropriate level of difficulty. You will want to design opportunities to assess students’ learning frequently to make sure that tasks are at the appropriate level. Personal responsibility involves strategies that help students attribute their successes to their ability and effort. When designing instruction, plan how you will provide attributional feedback to help students connect effort to success. Also involve your students in activities like goal setting and contracting in your instructional design. Here is how Marion Jones does this in her sixth grade classroom. ⇒ “I use a contracting grading system in my teaching. Students need to all take and pass my tests, but they can select from a list of different activities to fulfill the rest of their requirements for a grade.” Satisfaction. Students become unmotivated if the outcomes of their efforts don’t match their expectations, an...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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