Table 91 appears at the end of the chapter provides

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Unformatted text preview: sts refer to as procedural knowledge. The intellectual skills category is subdivided into five subcategories that can be arranged from simplest to most complex. These categories are discriminations, concrete concepts, defined concepts, rules and principles and higher order rules. Table 9.1 (appears at the end of the chapter) provides definitions and examples for the subcategories of intellectual skills. Attitudes. Attitudes are acquired internal states that guide our choices of personal action (Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). For example, schools might want to help students develop the attitude that cultural diversity is to be respected and honored. Attitudes can also involve personal preferences such as students 30 enjoying classical music or great literature. Attitudes usually don’t develop from the impact of a single lesson, but develop over time and multiple exposures. Psychomotor skills. Psychomotor skills require that students execute muscular actions to accomplish a particular goal, with or without the assistance of equipment (Dick & Carey, 2001). Learning to do a front somersault or to cut sheet metal are examples of psychomotor skills. Cognitive strategies. Cognitive strategies are internal processes by which learners select and adapt their ways of attending, remembering, learning, and thinking (Gagne+ , Briggs & Walter, 1988). They involve the techniques often discussed by others as learning or problem solving strategies (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986). Examples include strategies such as mnemonics, concept mapping, or an approach for solving story problems. Cognitive strategies can be viewed as a special subtype of intellectual skills because they involve learning how to learn or think, but because of their special purpose, they can also be treated as a separate type of learning outcome (Gagne+ , 1985; Gagne+ , Briggs, & Walter, 1988). Principle 3.2: Coordinating Mental Processes. Gagne+ (1985) views instructional design as the process of arranging external events and conditions to influence stude...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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