Unformatted text preview: e field, then
the problem-solving activities of geologists in the field would need to be analyzed
Task analysis could also be used to index the stories that practitioners tell
about their problem solving (Jonassen & Hernandez-Serrano, 2002). These stories
or cases can then be used to scaffold students’ problem solving by helping clarify
theoretical or conceptual ideas, providing a problem to be analyzed or solved, or
as a source of advice from practitioners on how to solve problems in a domain.
Finally, a form of task analysis called environmental analysis can help you
understand the contextual factors that enhance or reduce the likelihood of success
of an instructional deign (Tessmer, 1990; Tessmer & Richey, 1997). You will find
that an instructional design approach is more likely to succeed if it is modified to
be sensitive to your teaching context. Constructivist approaches pose some special
challenges in this regard. For example, a constructivist teacher would need to
balance coverage of prescribed content or standards with the need for students’ 18 self-direction of their learning. Also, the noise that is generated by active
exploration would need to be considered in terms of its effects on other teachers.
Behavioral Learning Theory and Instructional Design
Charles Gropper (1973, 1974, 1975, 1983) has developed an approach to
instructional design based on behavioral learning theory that describes how
instructional treatments (stimuli) can be designed to produce the learning of
specific behaviors (responses). As we have done in previous discussions of the
application of behavioral theory, we will describe Gropper’s work in terms of the
behavioral learning theory principles developed in Chapter Two.
Principle 2.1: Learning is Measurable and Observable.
Gropper’s approach to instructional design begins with a thorough
performance analysis of the objectives selected for instruction. When you conduct
a performance analysis of your objectives, you...
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