Task analysis could also be used to index the stories

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Unformatted text preview: e field, then the problem-solving activities of geologists in the field would need to be analyzed and understood. Task analysis could also be used to index the stories that practitioners tell about their problem solving (Jonassen & Hernandez-Serrano, 2002). These stories or cases can then be used to scaffold students’ problem solving by helping clarify theoretical or conceptual ideas, providing a problem to be analyzed or solved, or as a source of advice from practitioners on how to solve problems in a domain. Finally, a form of task analysis called environmental analysis can help you understand the contextual factors that enhance or reduce the likelihood of success of an instructional deign (Tessmer, 1990; Tessmer & Richey, 1997). You will find that an instructional design approach is more likely to succeed if it is modified to be sensitive to your teaching context. Constructivist approaches pose some special challenges in this regard. For example, a constructivist teacher would need to balance coverage of prescribed content or standards with the need for students’ 18 self-direction of their learning. Also, the noise that is generated by active exploration would need to be considered in terms of its effects on other teachers. Behavioral Learning Theory and Instructional Design Charles Gropper (1973, 1974, 1975, 1983) has developed an approach to instructional design based on behavioral learning theory that describes how instructional treatments (stimuli) can be designed to produce the learning of specific behaviors (responses). As we have done in previous discussions of the application of behavioral theory, we will describe Gropper’s work in terms of the behavioral learning theory principles developed in Chapter Two. Principle 2.1: Learning is Measurable and Observable. Gropper’s approach to instructional design begins with a thorough performance analysis of the objectives selected for instruction. When you conduct a performance analysis of your objectives, you...
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