Task endogenous incentives flow naturally from the

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Unformatted text preview: d if their efforts don’t lead to tangible successes. Satisfaction is enhanced through the strategies of intrinsic reinforcement (natural consequences), extrinsic rewards (positive consequences), and equity (Keller & Kopp. 1987; Small, 1997). These strategies are useful for implementing Principle 6.1: Learners are more motivated when they believe their actions will result 61 in the successful completion of challenging tasks and Principle 6.2: Learners are more motivated by activities that appeal to their personal needs, desires and interests Keller (1983) recommends that teachers use both task endogenous (intrinsic reinforcement) and task exogenous (extrinsic reinforcement) strategies to help develop students’ satisfaction with learning. Task endogenous incentives flow naturally from the participation in learning. As you learned in Chapter 2, behaviorists refer to endogenous incentives as natural reinforcers. Examples of task endogenous incentives would include the following (Good & Brophy, 2001). • Design instruction that includes opportunities for students to engage in fantasy and simulation activities. For example, design opportunities for role-playing in your lessons. • Provide opportunities for students to interact with each other. Identify places in your lesson design where students can collaborate. • When relevant, provide lessons that are designed with higher order or thought-provoking objectives in mind. • Design opportunities for students to work on and complete projects based on what they are learning. The problem-based focus of constructivism is an example of this recommendation. Task exogenous incentives are external rewards provided to learners. Keller (1983) recommends the judicious use of exogenous or extrinsic incentives 62 because of the concerns about the potential damaging effects of exogenous or extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation (Kohn, 1993; Lepper & Greene, 1975). However, if the following guidelines are followed, exogenous rewards can be useful f...
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