Unformatted text preview: d if their efforts don’t lead to tangible successes.
Satisfaction is enhanced through the strategies of intrinsic reinforcement (natural
consequences), extrinsic rewards (positive consequences), and equity (Keller &
Kopp. 1987; Small, 1997). These strategies are useful for implementing Principle
6.1: Learners are more motivated when they believe their actions will result 61 in the successful completion of challenging tasks and Principle 6.2: Learners
are more motivated by activities that appeal to their personal needs, desires
Keller (1983) recommends that teachers use both task endogenous
(intrinsic reinforcement) and task exogenous (extrinsic reinforcement) strategies
to help develop students’ satisfaction with learning. Task endogenous incentives
flow naturally from the participation in learning. As you learned in Chapter 2,
behaviorists refer to endogenous incentives as natural reinforcers. Examples of
task endogenous incentives would include the following (Good & Brophy, 2001).
• Design instruction that includes opportunities for students to engage in
fantasy and simulation activities. For example, design opportunities for
role-playing in your lessons. • Provide opportunities for students to interact with each other. Identify
places in your lesson design where students can collaborate. • When relevant, provide lessons that are designed with higher order or
thought-provoking objectives in mind. • Design opportunities for students to work on and complete projects
based on what they are learning. The problem-based focus of
constructivism is an example of this recommendation. Task exogenous incentives are external rewards provided to learners.
Keller (1983) recommends the judicious use of exogenous or extrinsic incentives 62 because of the concerns about the potential damaging effects of exogenous or
extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation (Kohn, 1993; Lepper & Greene, 1975).
However, if the following guidelines are followed, exogenous rewards can be
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