Chapter 9

# The steps in a procedure need to be identified this

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Unformatted text preview: learning a procedural rule, students must learn the series of steps for the procedure and also when the procedure should be applied. To accomplish this, Gropper recommends the following routine treatments. • The steps in a procedure need to be identified. This is when procedural task analysis is useful. For example, you could use procedural task analysis to identify the steps in long division. • The steps need to be demonstrated or modeled. For example, you could work a few long division problems at the board. • Students would be provided with the rules or rationales for each step. For example, you would tell students how to determine if they have divided by the largest possible number. 26 • Students need to practice in varied contexts and with the opportunity for feedback. For example, students would be provided with guided practice with different applications for long division. The difficulty of learning to follow a procedural rule is determined by a number of variables including the number of steps in a procedure, the difficulty in determining when similar but different procedures should be applied, or the complexity of the rules for applying a step in a procedure. Nonroutine treatments to address these issues include breaking the procedure into parts and teaching them a part at a time, or providing students with a checklist or job aid to help them as they are learning (Spaulding & Dwyer, 1999). For example, you could create a poster that serves as a visual display for the sequence of steps in a procedure. You also could provide a verbal prompt that focuses students on a critical component of a performance such as “meet the ball at the front foot” for teaching students to hit a tennis ball (Honukman & Petrakis, 2001). You can also teach the common or general rules for applying a procedure before introducing the exceptions. It should be noted that Gropper (1983) views the teaching of problem solving as an additional example of learning procedural rules. The complexity...
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## This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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