Unformatted text preview: learning a procedural rule, students must learn the series of steps for the procedure
and also when the procedure should be applied. To accomplish this, Gropper
recommends the following routine treatments.
• The steps in a procedure need to be identified. This is when procedural
task analysis is useful. For example, you could use procedural task
analysis to identify the steps in long division. • The steps need to be demonstrated or modeled. For example, you
could work a few long division problems at the board. • Students would be provided with the rules or rationales for each step.
For example, you would tell students how to determine if they have
divided by the largest possible number. 26 • Students need to practice in varied contexts and with the opportunity
for feedback. For example, students would be provided with guided
practice with different applications for long division. The difficulty of learning to follow a procedural rule is determined by a
number of variables including the number of steps in a procedure, the difficulty in
determining when similar but different procedures should be applied, or the
complexity of the rules for applying a step in a procedure. Nonroutine treatments
to address these issues include breaking the procedure into parts and teaching
them a part at a time, or providing students with a checklist or job aid to help
them as they are learning (Spaulding & Dwyer, 1999). For example, you could
create a poster that serves as a visual display for the sequence of steps in a
procedure. You also could provide a verbal prompt that focuses students on a
critical component of a performance such as “meet the ball at the front foot” for
teaching students to hit a tennis ball (Honukman & Petrakis, 2001). You can also
teach the common or general rules for applying a procedure before introducing
It should be noted that Gropper (1983) views the teaching of problem
solving as an additional example of learning procedural rules. The complexity...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible