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Unformatted text preview: ple is that assessments need to align
to instructional goals. Because of the complicated, interdisciplinary nature of
problem-based learning, assessment procedures such as artifacts and exhibitions
are often recommended (Arends, 2001). An artifact can be a videotape, a
concrete model, a portfolio, or any representation that captures the complexity of
what students have learned. An exhibition is an opportunity for students to
present what they have learned to an audience. The exhibitions you may be most
familiar with are science fairs and student presentations in classes and seminars.
The use of artifacts and exhibitions needs to be planned carefully. For example,
rubrics or rating scales will need to be developed for the students’ artifacts and
exhibitions. You may need also the assistance of other professionals to serve as
evaluators for the exhibitions. Chapter 13 contains additional details on the use of
these types of approaches.
Motivation and Instructional Design 53 Learners are motivated by lessons that they find reasonably challenging,
that appeal to their needs and interests, that help them achieve relevant goals, and
that are characterized by some amount of choice and the unexpected. These
characteristics of motivating instruction are important regardless of your approach
to instructional design, and they are reflected in Keller’s ARCS instructional
Keller’s ARCS Theory
Keller’s ARCS instructional design theory is a framework for embedding
motivational strategies into instructional design (Keller, 1983, 1987, 1999a,
1999b; Keller & Kopp, 1987; Keller & Litchfield, 2002).The letters ARCS
represent four categories of motivational variables (attention, relevance,
competence, and satisfaction) and the research that supports them. Each of the
four categories has three sub-categories of strategies that are used to guide
implementation of ARCS (Keller & Kopp, 1987; Small, 1997; 1999). The
categories and sub-categories of strategies are based on a number of theories of
motivation, but to a large extent ARCS represents an expecta...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
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