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Unformatted text preview: avior will be performed. Third, it species the criterion for
success which is usually stated in terms of desired levels of accuracy and/or
speed. Consider the following example.
Conditions Behavior Criterion Given a worksheet students will 90% of the With fifty single- be able to time. Digit addition write the Problems correct answer 6 Objectives written in this format can help with lesson planning because
the expected student performance is specified. The above example provides clear
guidance about the type of practice students should be doing, and how students’
progress will be assessed. However, this approach to writing objectives has been
criticized for encouraging teachers to focus on isolated, easily measured skills
rather than on broader more complicated cognitive outcomes such as improved
critical thinking or creativity (Linn & Gronlund, 2000). Additionally, these types
of objectives have been criticized for being inconsistent with the goals of
constructivist approaches to learning (Choi & Jonassen, 2000; Johnson, 2000).
Cognitive Theory and Educational Objectives
Measurable objectives have a role in cognitive theory, particularly in
terms of the learning of specific procedural skills or facts. However, specific
behavioral objectives may be less suitable for more complicated or higher-level
cognitive outcomes. In lieu of these specific objectives, your objectives could be
more generally stated such as, “Students will become more creative.” Although
this objective addresses more complicated cognitive activities, it also makes
instructional design more complicated because the objective is relatively vague
and open to multiple interpretations. For example, what does it mean to be
creative, and how is that assessed? Gronlund’s (2000) cognitive objectives
resolve this issue by supporting these types of objectives with lists of more 7 specific behaviors that indicate that the broader objective is being met. Consider
Instructional Objective: Students will improve their ability to reason
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible