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Unformatted text preview: from the opportunity to balance self-initiated or selfselected learning activities with teacher directed or selected activities. • Learners need to construct knowledge though active and hand on
exploration of their worlds. • Learners benefit both socially and cognitively from interactions with
peers and other adults. • Learners benefit from cross-curricular learning experiences that
promote connections across content domains. • Learning needs to be motivated students’ natural interests and desires
to know. • Rich and varied learning experiences are needed to account for
differences among learners. 69 Chapter 9 Tables
Table 9. 3. A synthesis of Gropper’s routine treatments and Gagne’s
conditions of learning for facts, concepts, and procedural rules.
Outcome Gropper’s Routine Treatments Gagne’s Conditions of
(Gropper) Students need to be told or
shown what the facts are. Draw students’ attention to the
important information to be
(Gagne) Students need to practice and
review the facts either by stating
or applying the facts, or both. Concepts A definition of the concept, and
possibly some guidelines for
helping distinguish related
Examples and non-examples of
the concept are provided. Provide a meaningful context for
Provide multiple cues for recall
and generalization of learned
Help students recall relevant
previously learned concepts.
Focus students’ attention on the
distinctive features of the concept
Provide sufficient retrieval cues Practice that requires students to
state the definition and to
categorize or produce examples
of the concept correctly. Allow for effective practice:
Allow every student to
participate and to receive
Align practice to how
students need to recall or
apply the concept.
varied Provide practice
examples and with
non- 70 examples and distributed over
Skills) The steps in a procedure need to
be identified. Help students recall relev...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible