Understand the relevance of arcs for designing

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Unformatted text preview: vironment. • Understand the relevance of ARCS for designing motivating instruction. The General Nature of the Instructional Design Process The instructional design models presented in this chapter can be placed in one of two broad categories. Instructional design models in the first category operate from the assumption that there are specific behaviors, knowledge, and beliefs that must be learned, and that there are different instructional strategies or conditions that work best for each type of knowledge and behavior (Spector, 3 2000; Reiser, 2001; Willis, 1998). For example, these models might specify the components of an effectively designed lesson for teaching a specific skill or concept. Both behavioral and cognitive learning theories have provided examples of these models (Gagne+ , 1985; Gropper, 1983; Merrill, 2001). Also, the ARCS model for applying motivation theory to instructional design fits in this category (Keller & Litchfield, 2002) Instructional design models in the second category provide recommendations for structuring learning environments that support students as they problem solve and invent their own understandings. These types of models are usually associated with constructivist views of classroom learning such as problem-based learning (Jonassen, 1999). Given the complexity of classroom learning, we support, as have others, an eclectic view of instructional design (Muknopadhyay & Parher, 2001; Reigeluth, 1997). No single model or category of instructional design will be most effective for the wide range of learning outcomes and learners in today’s classrooms. For example, students who are constructing their own understanding may at times need to be directly taught a needed skill or concept that they have not learned previously. Consequently, your goal should be to acquaint yourself with a variety of instructional design approaches that can support the various types of decisions you will need to make as you design instruction. 4 Regardless of the approach to instructional design, the process is typically organized around these four questions (Kemp, Morrison &...
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