Unformatted text preview: 1999). Gagne+ s (1985) five
categories of learning outcomes are: verbal information, intellectual skills,
attitudes, psychomotor skills, and cognitive strategies. The intellectual skills
category is further divided into a hierarchy of five subcategories.
Verbal information. Verbal information consists of the facts, lists,
names, and organized information that students are expected to learn (Gagne+ ,
1985; Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). It is also what information-processing theorists
refer to as declarative knowledge. At the end of instruction, the learner is
expected to state, list, or describe something (Dick & Carey, 2001),. Knowing the
parts of plants, the first ten amendments to the constitution, and key events in the
Civil War are all examples of verbal information.
Verbal information, especially learning of facts, can be perceived as lowlevel or even unimportant learning. However, students’ knowledge of verbal
information can be important in a number of ways (Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988).
First, it may provide important prerequisite knowledge for interpreting other
learning experiences. For example, knowing what colors Litmus paper turns in the 29 presence of acids or bases can help students interpret the results of an experiment
concerning acids and bases. Second, some verbal information has practical, even
day-to-day uses. Knowing the days of the week or knowing the meaning of the
word “flammable” both have obvious practical uses. Finally, well-organized and
understood verbal information can be useful in forming analogies during problem
solving and meaningful learning. For example, understanding the characteristics
of a computer might help students understand the structures of the informationprocessing model.
Intellectual skills. The learning of an intellectual skill involves knowing
how to apply acquired understandings to previously un-encountered examples or
experiences (Dick & Carey, 2001; Gagne+ , 1985). It is what informationprocessing psychologi...
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