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Verbal information verbal information consists of the

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Unformatted text preview: 1999). Gagne+ s (1985) five categories of learning outcomes are: verbal information, intellectual skills, attitudes, psychomotor skills, and cognitive strategies. The intellectual skills category is further divided into a hierarchy of five subcategories. Verbal information. Verbal information consists of the facts, lists, names, and organized information that students are expected to learn (Gagne+ , 1985; Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). It is also what information-processing theorists refer to as declarative knowledge. At the end of instruction, the learner is expected to state, list, or describe something (Dick & Carey, 2001),. Knowing the parts of plants, the first ten amendments to the constitution, and key events in the Civil War are all examples of verbal information. Verbal information, especially learning of facts, can be perceived as lowlevel or even unimportant learning. However, students’ knowledge of verbal information can be important in a number of ways (Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). First, it may provide important prerequisite knowledge for interpreting other learning experiences. For example, knowing what colors Litmus paper turns in the 29 presence of acids or bases can help students interpret the results of an experiment concerning acids and bases. Second, some verbal information has practical, even day-to-day uses. Knowing the days of the week or knowing the meaning of the word “flammable” both have obvious practical uses. Finally, well-organized and understood verbal information can be useful in forming analogies during problem solving and meaningful learning. For example, understanding the characteristics of a computer might help students understand the structures of the informationprocessing model. Intellectual skills. The learning of an intellectual skill involves knowing how to apply acquired understandings to previously un-encountered examples or experiences (Dick & Carey, 2001; Gagne+ , 1985). It is what informationprocessing psychologi...
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