Verbal information is more meaningful if students

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: s, and skills. Table 9.3 (appears at the end of the chapter) combines important ideas from both theories that may help you integrate the two theories. Principle 3.1: Connecting New Knowledge to Existing Knowledge The importance of considering prior knowledge during instructional design is emphasized throughout Gagne’s model. For example, goal analysis involves the identification of prerequisite knowledge and skills. Verbal information is more meaningful if students connect new information to existing 40 information (Gagne & Merrill, 1990). In the case of an intellectual skill lesson, students need the appropriate prerequisite skills. Because of the importance of prior knowledge, you may decide to pre-test students to determine if they possess the relevant prior knowledge. Pre-testing can be done in a number of ways including paper and pencil tests, behavioral samples, questionnaires, and the review of academic records (Morrison & Ross, 1994). If you decide to pre-test, however, you need to be aware of both the benefits and cautions involved with pre-testing (Morrison & Ross, 1994; Yelon, 1996). An important benefit of pre-testing is that you can avoid teaching a lesson for which students are unprepared. Also, boredom can result when students participate in lengthy but unnecessary lessons on already mastered content. Be aware, however, that pre-testing involves a time commitment. You will need to schedule the necessary time to administer and interpret pre-tests. Interpretation can be particularly complicated because students may make the same mistakes during pre-testing, but for radically different reasons. Finally, pre-testing can create negative feelings in students who do not do well. Because of the concerns with pre-testing, you should pretest in informal and non-threatening ways if possible, and you should be clear to students about why you are pre-testing and what level of performance you expect. Let students know if they are not expected to know ev...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online