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Unformatted text preview: opportunities to practice the behaviors and choices associated
with an attitude (Gagne+ , 1985). If the goal is to encourage love of reading,
students should be allowed to participate in free reading and to experience the
reading as an enjoyable activity.
Second, students need to connect an attitude and associated behaviors with
success or positive outcomes. You can connect attitudes with success by
reinforcing the behaviors associated with an attitude. This is how Carmen Johnson
accomplishes this with her school’s character education program 37 ⇒ “We run periodic assemblies during which students who have
demonstrated positive character traits are honored in front of the
school. Additionally, teachers have little certificates to award in their
classrooms for demonstrations of positive character traits.”
Students can also learn to associate positive outcomes with an attitude by
interacting with models who have achieved positive outcomes through that
attitude, especially if these models are similar to the learner or have high levels of
prestige (Driscoll, 1994). These models also can communicate to students how
particular attitudes have contributed to their success or happiness. This
component is also present in Carmen Johnson’s character education program.
⇒ “Our students read about people with backgrounds similar to their
own whose success can be traced to positive character traits. We
also bring in local heroes who can describe their experiences.”
Conditions for psychomotor skills. When students are first learning a
psychomotor skill it is important to provide them with verbal guidance (Fitts &
Posner, 1967). Verbal guidance can take the form of a self-instructional routine
that students use to talk themselves through the skill.
Second, we should provide opportunities for repeated practice over time,
especially if the goal is automaticity. This practice should be accompanied by
feedback on the accuracy of performance (Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). 38 Finally, as students become more proficient, they may profit from mental
or covert rehearsal of the skill. Athletes often find that mental imagery can
improve their skill performance (Driscoll, 1994). For example, divers might
imagine how they w...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08
- The Bible