You can connect attitudes with success by reinforcing

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Unformatted text preview: opportunities to practice the behaviors and choices associated with an attitude (Gagne+ , 1985). If the goal is to encourage love of reading, students should be allowed to participate in free reading and to experience the reading as an enjoyable activity. Second, students need to connect an attitude and associated behaviors with success or positive outcomes. You can connect attitudes with success by reinforcing the behaviors associated with an attitude. This is how Carmen Johnson accomplishes this with her school’s character education program 37 ⇒ “We run periodic assemblies during which students who have demonstrated positive character traits are honored in front of the school. Additionally, teachers have little certificates to award in their classrooms for demonstrations of positive character traits.” Students can also learn to associate positive outcomes with an attitude by interacting with models who have achieved positive outcomes through that attitude, especially if these models are similar to the learner or have high levels of prestige (Driscoll, 1994). These models also can communicate to students how particular attitudes have contributed to their success or happiness. This component is also present in Carmen Johnson’s character education program. ⇒ “Our students read about people with backgrounds similar to their own whose success can be traced to positive character traits. We also bring in local heroes who can describe their experiences.” Conditions for psychomotor skills. When students are first learning a psychomotor skill it is important to provide them with verbal guidance (Fitts & Posner, 1967). Verbal guidance can take the form of a self-instructional routine that students use to talk themselves through the skill. Second, we should provide opportunities for repeated practice over time, especially if the goal is automaticity. This practice should be accompanied by feedback on the accuracy of performance (Gagne+ & Driscoll, 1988). 38 Finally, as students become more proficient, they may profit from mental or covert rehearsal of the skill. Athletes often find that mental imagery can improve their skill performance (Driscoll, 1994). For example, divers might imagine how they w...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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