Unformatted text preview: Additionally, a number of techniques discussed in
previous chapters such as mnemonics, imagery, advance organizers, analogies,
and KWL are also useful for this condition of learning.
Designing instruction that provides multiple cues for recall and
generalization of learned information is a third condition of learning for verbal
information. You can create multiple retrieval cues by presenting information in 34 different ways and with varied uses and implications (Driscoll, 1994). Here is
how Francis Turner does this in his high school civics class.
⇒ “When we discuss the first ten amendments to the constitution, I try to
connect these basic rights to varied experiences the students might
have had. For example, I relate freedom of speech to censorship issues
in music and dress codes in high schools. I want them to understand
the first amendment in terms of its multiple implications for their life.”
Another way to provide retrieval cues is to design instruction that uses similar
organizational structures for related topics. Students can use parallel
organizational structures as a way of organizing their learning. For example, you
might provide an outline or series of questions that will be addressed for different
related topics such as key elements of a world religion.
Conditions for intellectual skills. Because some rules and concepts
involve the use of previously learned concepts, and some procedures rely on
previously learned skills, it’s helpful top have students recall those previously
learned component skills,. A learning hierarchy analysis can help you identify the
relevant prior learning.
A second condition of learning intellectual skills is to focus students’
attention on the distinctive features of the intellectual skill being learned. Here are
some suggestions for focusing students’ attention during intellectual skill
learning. 35 • In the case of concept learning, reduce the likelihood that students will
inaccurately encode unessential details as part o...
View Full Document