Unformatted text preview: pular in schools and clinics because they also
can be used with students of different ages, in different settings, and in
combination with other behavioral interventions (Buisson, Murdock, Reynolds, &
Cronin, 1995; Cavalier, Ferrretti, & Hodges, 1997; Higgins, Williams, & 20 McLaughlin, 2001; Hupp & Reitman, 1999; Salend, & Gordon, 1987; Wolfe,
Boyd, & Wolfe, 1983). Another reason for the popularity of token systems is that
they can be tailored to students’ individual likes and values. Students can work for
the same tokens, but the back-up reinforcers or even the behaviors than earn or
lose tokens can be different for each student (Cruz & Cullinan, 2001;
Wielkiewicz, 1995). Token reinforcement systems are implemented through a
sequence of six steps (Becker, 1986; Jones & Jones, 2001).
• Identify the behaviors that will earn or lose tokens. • Develop a menu of back-up reinforcers. • Set the value for the reinforcers and behaviors. • Decide on the tokens. • Establish and teach the operating p...
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- Spring '08
- classroom management