Unformatted text preview: combined with token reinforcement systems and
clearly stated expectations (Musser, Bray, Kehle, & Jenson, 2001). The fine or
response cost in that case involves the loss of earned tokens.
Time-out is short for time-out from reinforcement, because when students
are in time out they lose the right to earn reinforcement. Table 10.2 contains
descriptions of various forms of time-out in order of severity.
Time-out is one of the most commonly used interventions in special
education settings (Wood & Wrobel, 1990). It tends to be particularly effective
for students’ attention seeking behaviors (Turner & Watson, 1999). However, it is
also a strategy that has both educational and legal concerns (Gartrell, 2001. 2002;
Lawyer-Tarr, 1999; Porter, 2000; Schreiber, 1999; Yell, 1994). For example, time
out has been criticized for its inability to teach positive behaviors, and for
isolating students from classroom experiences. Because of this, you should
consult your district policies regarding the use of the more serious forms of timeout, especially for students with disabilities. Also, co...
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- Spring '08