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about their progress.” Self-Monitoring/Self-Evaluation
In order for students to self-manage their behavior, they first must be
aware of that behavior (Bandura, 1986). Self-monitoring and self-evaluation are
the processes used to develop this type of self-awareness. With self-monitoring,
students identify and record occurrences of target behaviors (O’Reilly, et al.,
2002; Shapiro & Cole, 1994; Trammel, Schloss, & Alper, 1994). For example, 31 students may make a mark on an index card every time they raise their hand
before speaking in a class discussion. Self-evaluation is when students judge their
behavior in terms of a standard or criterion (Manning, 1991). An example of a
self-evaluation technique would be students using a five-point scale to rate their
ability to follow directions.
Self-monitoring. Self-monitoring can be viewed as both an assessment
and intervention approach. When self-awareness leads to modification of a
behavior, it is called the reactive effect (Schloss & Smith, 1994). For example,
asking you to count the number of times you daydream while reading this text
may cause you to daydream less often. If so, that would be an example of the
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08