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Self reinforcement therefore becomes a way of

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Unformatted text preview: ing process should be used to guide students toward more realistic criteria for success. This is how Bobby Hammond, a middle school special education teacher, handles this when she contracts with her students with learning disabilities. • “When I do my weekly behavior contracts with my students, I always include a bonus clause. If they exceed the criteria we have established, then they can earn better or more reinforcers. I want them always to strive to do their best.” Second, self-reinforcement tends to be more effective when used for behaviors that are already under environmental control (Fredericksen & Fredericksen, 1975; Zirpoli & Melloy, 1997). Self-reinforcement, therefore, becomes a way of transferring behavioral control to your students. Self-Instruction Self-instruction is when students use verbal self-prompting to guide their behavior (Zirpoli & Melloy, 1997). Self-instruction usually begins by having students talk aloud to themselves, another person, or tape recorder, but eventually the self-instruction becomes covert or internal speech (Swaggert, 1998). Selfinstruction approaches have been used for many purposes; including he...
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