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should be used to guide students toward more realistic criteria for success. This is
how Bobby Hammond, a middle school special education teacher, handles this
when she contracts with her students with learning disabilities.
• “When I do my weekly behavior contracts with my students, I always
include a bonus clause. If they exceed the criteria we have established,
then they can earn better or more reinforcers. I want them always to
strive to do their best.” Second, self-reinforcement tends to be more effective when used for
behaviors that are already under environmental control (Fredericksen &
Fredericksen, 1975; Zirpoli & Melloy, 1997). Self-reinforcement, therefore,
becomes a way of transferring behavioral control to your students.
Self-instruction is when students use verbal self-prompting to guide their
behavior (Zirpoli & Melloy, 1997). Self-instruction usually begins by having
students talk aloud to themselves, another person, or tape recorder, but eventually
the self-instruction becomes covert or internal speech (Swaggert, 1998). Selfinstruction approaches have been used for many purposes; including he...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08