Social interactions allow learners to confront their

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Unformatted text preview: d why.” Reducing the Degrees of Freedom 65 Table 5.4. Constructivist view of teaching and cognitive developmental theory. Constructivist Suggestions Piaget Vygotsky Bruner For Teaching Classrooms need to provide opportunities for students to engage in the discovery of new knowledge through problem-solving experiences. Learners need to be engaged in spontaneous research activities. Classrooms need to provide complex learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge, and to view knowledge from different perspectives. New cognitive structures develop from existing structures. Classrooms need to provide opportunities for students to think collaboratively with teachers and other students. Social interactions allow learners to confront their egocentrism. Development follows the general law of cultural development. Learners acquire amplification systems through social interactions. Students need to learn to be self-regulated learners who can take an active role in designing their own learning experiences. Learners seek equilibrium. Higher mental functions are mediated and controlled by learners. The goal of education is to teach learners to think and problem-solve. Different cultures provide different cultural tools . Different cultures provide different amplification systems. Students need to be engaged in authentic learning experiences that allow them to enculturate into communities of practice. Higher mental functions are generated from learners actions. Discovery learning results in meaningful understanding. Students should learn the psychology of the different subject matters. 66 Table 5.5. Looking ahead: Cognitive developmental/constructivist principles and decision-making. Principle 5.1: Learning is More Powerful if Learners Actively Construct Their Own Understandings Decision Area Implication For Practice Teaching and Classroom Management Students need to be engaged Chapters 7, 9. 10 in learning through exploration and discovery with the goal of acquiring meaningful, interconnected understandings of knowledge. Planning Assessment Students need to be actively involved in classroom management decisions and procedures. Teachers need to design learning environments that support active exploration, problem solving, and social construction of knowledge. Teachers need to design assessments that ask students to apply their knowledge in problem solving situations. Looking Ahead Chapter 9 Chapter 13 67 Principle 5.2: Learning Experiences are More Effective if They Take into Account the Cognitive Developmental Levels of the Learners. Planning Teachers need to design developmentally appropriate instruction. Chapter 9 Teaching and Classroom Management Classroom management and teaching strategies should be developmentally appropriate. Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 68 Principle 5.3: Students’ Knowledge Construction is Assisted by the Nature of their Interactions with People and/or Objects in Their Environments. Decision Area Implications for Practice Looking Ahead Planning Teacher need to design environments that allow students to collaborate as they solve authentic problems. Teaching and Classroom Management Students need to be engaged in learning experiences that emphasize exploration, invention, and collaboration. Assessment Students should collaborate with teachers in establishing and implementing classroom management procedures. Students need to be engaged in authentic assessments that are guided by more skilled learners. Chapter 9 Chapters 7, 9, 10 Chapter 13...
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