Principles into practice looking in on tom pierce and

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Unformatted text preview: plies that teaching and classroom management involve the carefully planned use of stimuli to produce learning. This plan should be based on an understanding of how eliciting stimuli, antecedents, and consequences influence behavior. For example, a skill lesson that provides modeling or demonstration as antecedents along with many opportunities for practice with feedback can be an effective use of antecedents and consequences to teach a skill. Principles Into Practice: Looking In on Tom Pierce and Emilio Lopez The experiences of Tom Pierce and Emilio Lopez provide examples of how the three behavioral principles apply to classroom teaching. We asked you to reflect on these applications as you looked in on Tom Pierce and Emilio Lopez. Here are our views about those opportunities to look in on these two teachers. Looking Ahead: Learning Principles and Decision-Making One of the themes of this book is that teachers’ decision-making process is improved through the application of principles from psychological theory. In Chapter 1 we identified these three broad categories of teacher decisions that provide opportunities to apply psychological theories. 47 • decisions made when planning a lesson, • decisions made when teaching and managing in the classroom and • decisions made when assessing the effectiveness of their actions. In chapters 7 through 11 and 14, the principles developed in this chapter are used to organize discussions of applications of behavioral learning theory to the decisions teachers make in the areas of instructional design, instructional delivery, classroom management and assessment of learning. Table 2.3 (Appears at the end of the chapter) allows you to look forward and see the implications of these principles for the types of decision-making discussed in those latter chapters. 48 Figure 2.1. Pavlov and classical conditioning. Phase I Preconditioning Phase II During Conditioning Phase III Post-conditining S (Bell) R (Attention) S (Bell) CS (Bell) S (Meat Powder) R (Salivation) S (Meat Powder) USC (Meat Powder) B = Stimulus R = Response CS = Conditioned Stimulus CR (Salivation ) UCR CR = Conditioned Response UCS = Unconditioned Stimulus UCR = Unconditioned Response 49 Table 2.2. Positive reinforcement examples. Type of Positive Reinforcement Social Reinforcer Definition Examples* Reinforcement by demonstrating approval, attention or affection to the student A teacher praises a student for his improvement in science. A teacher gives a student a thumbs-up for the answer she just gave in a class discussion. Activity Reinforcer Tangible Reinforcer A behavior or privilege students earn as a result of their behavior A physical object students earn through their behavior Students earn extra computer time. Students are allowed a study hall if their work is done. Students earn a good behavior certificate. Students are given perfect attendance medals. Token Can be exchanged for valued reinforcers Students earn class dollars that they can spend in a weekly auction. Natural...
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