The loss of car privileges is working as a 23 removal

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Unformatted text preview: is followed by the removal of a valued stimulus. For example, a teenager violates his curfew by coming in late, and the parents take away the use of the car. As a result of losing car privileges, the student stops coming in late. The loss of car privileges is working as a 23 removal punishment for the behavior of coming in late. In schools, attempts at removal punishment usually involve taking away student privileges, such as free time, recess, or the right to participate in extracurricular activities. Guidelines for the use of punishment. Punishment needs to be used sparingly and cautiously because of the problems that have been associated with the use of punishment (Kazdin, 1994; Nuzzolo-Gomez, et al., 2002; Papatheodorou, 2000; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991). For example, punishment can serve as a model of aggression for students, and students’ negative feelings about punishment can generalize to the person administering the punishment. Additionally, the effects of punishment tend not to maintain once the punishment is discontinued, and the effects fail to transfer to other environments where the same behaviors occur. Finally, punishment typically teaches students what not to do, but fails to teach them what to do instead. To reduce the possibility of these issues, follow these guidelines when you decide to use punishment (Walker & Shea, 1995). • Provide clear classroom guidelines and rules. Make sure students know what is expected of them. Clear guidelines help students know how to behave to avoid punishment. • Be fair and consistent with your punishments. Don’t establish a pattern of being more or less lenient with certain students. 24 • Administer punishments firmly, but in a calm and almost impersonal manner. Remember that your goal is to change a behavior, not to humiliate students. • Try to use techniques that encourage or teach appropriate behavior in lieu of punishments. For example, if a student is inappropriately seeking attention, teach the student more acceptable ways to seek attention, and reinforce her or him for using those alternatives (Fisher & Thompson, 2000). A Comparison of the Four Consequences Figure 2.2 (Appears at the end of the chapter) compares the four behavioral consequences on two key variables: the effect of the consequence on behavior and the nature of the consequence. As you can see from Figure 2.2, punishment and reinforcement differ in terms of their effect on behavior. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will continue, while punishment decreases the likelihood that a behavior will continue. The two types of reinforcement and the two types of punishment are different in terms of whether a stimulus is added or removed from the environment as a consequence. Effect versus Intent Before leaving the topics of reinforcement and punishment, we want to emphasize one final point. Very often, we have been programmed to believe that 25 stimuli like praise and extra recess are reinforcers, and that stimuli like reprimands and loss of recess are punishm...
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