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Unformatted text preview: aviorist, learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior due
to the effects of stimuli on that behavior. A change in behavior can be measured
or observed, and stimuli that create that change also be measured or observed.
This principle has two major implications for classroom decision-making.
The critical first step in planning a lesson or a classroom management
strategy is to define clearly what you want your students to be able to do. This
implies that teachers need clear, measurable objectives to guide their decisions.
For example, if you want a student to improve how she participates in class, then
you should identify observable behaviors that reflect that improvement. Maybe
she will interrupt other students less, or make more encouraging or positive
comments to other students.
The behavioral principle that learning can be observed and measured is
also clearly related to your decisions about the effectiveness of your actions. From
the behavioral perspective, making decisions about the effectiveness of your
actions requires a comparison between current student behavior and identified
target behavior. This implies that teachers need to identify observations or
measures that allow them to judge whether or not students are achieving their
objectives. In the class participation example, you might count how many times 45 this student interrupts before and after you have taken actions to help her
participate more effectively.
Principle 2.2: The Learning of Complicated Behaviors is Gradual and Step
This second behavioral principle evolves from the behaviorist belief that
the learning of complex behaviors is a gradual process, and an understanding of
their concepts of shaping and chaining. One implication of this principle is that
teachers need to plan organized sequences of instructional activities that guide
this gradual learning process. For example, students would learn certain math
skills such as addition and multiplication before students they learn how to do
Principle 2.2 also has an important implication for how you interact with
the students in your classroom. Don’t expect students to master complex
behaviors all at once. Use shaping to reinforce gradual improvement in academic
and classroom behavior. For example, you might reinforce students for gradually
improving their performance on a math test.
Finally, Principle 2.2 implies an on-going approach to assessment. Since
learning is a gradual process you will find it necessary and useful to track their
progress at each step. This approach allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of
your instruction or management strategies and when necessary to make changes
in your approaches. For example, while presenting a skill you may ask students 46 questions as about their understanding. If some students are confused, you can
correct that confusion immediately.
Principle 2.3: Learning Results From the Effects of Stimuli on Responses.
Your understanding of classical conditioning, contiguity learning, and
operant conditioning concepts form the basis for the application of this principle.
This principle im...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08