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Figure 35 figure 35 appears at the end of the chapter

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Unformatted text preview: udent learning about the planets of solar system learns that Venus is closer to the sun than the Earth and then remembering how it feels warmer closer to an electric heater than far away, thinks that it is probably hotter on Venus. Figure 3.5 (Figure 3.5 appears at the end of the chapter) provides a model of the propositions that result form the student’s elaboration. Notice that by elaborating on the new information, the student adding to the meaning of the presented information and actually increased the information stored in his or her memory. Second, new information may be made more meaningful by placing that information within a category or sequence of related ideas. This process is called organization, and is similar to elaboration in that the process results in the creation of new connections or associations in long-term memory. For example, learners find it easier to remember a list of objects if the list was grouped into a finite number of categories. The information in each category is linked by shared attributes or relationships. To continue the previous example, the student, might create a category for inner planets (i.e. those that are small and rocky, such as Mercury, Venus and Earth and Mars). Figure 3.6 (Figure 3.6 appears at the end of the chapter) provides a model of the propositions that result from this student’s organization. The retrieval of declarative knowledge from long-term memory to working memory occurs through the process of the spread of activation (Anderson, 1983). Manuscript 9/28/03 34 Declarative knowledge that is active in working memory cues, or activates associated units of declarative knowledge in long-term memory. As the activation spreads, new chunks of declarative knowledge becomes active in working memory and the activation spreads to a new set of chunks as the process continues. The process of retrieval is determined by the associations among the chunks of knowledge in long-term memory. An important implication of this explanation of retrieval is that the likelihood of recalling a specific chunk of declarative knowledge is related to the number of associations with other chunks. In other words, the more associations that lead to a chunk of declarative knowledge the more likely it is to be recalled. Note that both elaboration and organization result in the creation of more associations in the declarative memory network, and so assist later retrieval because the information can be recalled by using these connections. This description of encoding and retrieval explains the effectiveness of many learning strategies. For example, creating an acronym is often used to enhance the recollection of facts. The names of the Great Lakes can be recalled with the acronym HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior). The word homes is not present in the names of the Great Lakes, but it provides an additional retrieval cue by connecting the first letters of the names of the Great Lakes to a familiar word. Additional examples of elaboration are provided in Table 3.2 (Table 3.2 appears at the end of the ch...
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