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Unformatted text preview: plish specific goals. The automaticity that is characteristic of procedural
knowledge allows these skills to be performed without consciously attending to the
performance in working memory. For example, if certain sub skills, like reading
decoding become automatic, then they do not pose a processing load in working memory,
and other reading skills can operate more efficiently. To achieve this level of
automaticity, students will need practice using the skills. If the skills are complicated,
they may need a considerable amount practice over a fairly lengthy time period. For
example, building fluency with reading decoding will require that students are given
numerous opportunities to read over their first few years as readers. Manuscript 9/28/03 27 By being sensitive to the limitations of working memory, teachers can maximize
learning by helping their students optimize the use of their working memory. Teaching
your students appropriate memory strategies and reminding them when to use the
strategies will improve your students ability to learn new information. Avoid over
loading your students’ working memory by managing the pace and complexity of
information presented in your lessons. Finally teach your students how to use make
appropriate use of note taking, calculators, check lists or other external memory aids.
Long-term memory is the third and final memory structure, and it is where all
the knowledge we have learned is stored (Baddeley, 1990). As shown in Figure 3.4, longterm memory is divided into declarative long-term memory and procedural long-term
memory (Anderson, 1983). The knowledge in declarative long-term memory represents
the concepts and ideas, organized into schema or knowledge networks. Procedural
knowledge representing an individual’s skills are represented in procedural long-term
memory. The duration of information in long-term memory is very long, and is
potentially available for retrieval for as long as we live. The capacity of the long-term
memory seems to be virtually unlimited. In fact, it seems to be the case that the storage of
knowledge in long-term memory actually increases the capacity to add new knowledge.
Encoding, Compilation and Retrieval
Encoding and compilation processes allow us to modify the contents of long-term
memory, and retrieval allows us to make use of the knowledge we have stored there.
Encoding is the process of preparing information to be stored in declarative long-term
memory. Compilation is the process that uses declarative knowledge in working memory Manuscript 9/28/03 28 and creates new procedural knowledge in procedural long-term memory. Retrieval is the
process of activating or recalling knowledge from long-term memory. In the case of
declarative knowledge, retrieval makes the knowledge active in working memory. In the
case of procedural knowledge, retrieval results in the automatic performance of some
action. Successful learning depends on encoding or compiling knowledge so that it can be
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08