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For example if certain sub skills like reading

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Unformatted text preview: plish specific goals. The automaticity that is characteristic of procedural knowledge allows these skills to be performed without consciously attending to the performance in working memory. For example, if certain sub skills, like reading decoding become automatic, then they do not pose a processing load in working memory, and other reading skills can operate more efficiently. To achieve this level of automaticity, students will need practice using the skills. If the skills are complicated, they may need a considerable amount practice over a fairly lengthy time period. For example, building fluency with reading decoding will require that students are given numerous opportunities to read over their first few years as readers. Manuscript 9/28/03 27 By being sensitive to the limitations of working memory, teachers can maximize learning by helping their students optimize the use of their working memory. Teaching your students appropriate memory strategies and reminding them when to use the strategies will improve your students ability to learn new information. Avoid over loading your students’ working memory by managing the pace and complexity of information presented in your lessons. Finally teach your students how to use make appropriate use of note taking, calculators, check lists or other external memory aids. Long-term Memory Long-term memory is the third and final memory structure, and it is where all the knowledge we have learned is stored (Baddeley, 1990). As shown in Figure 3.4, longterm memory is divided into declarative long-term memory and procedural long-term memory (Anderson, 1983). The knowledge in declarative long-term memory represents the concepts and ideas, organized into schema or knowledge networks. Procedural knowledge representing an individual’s skills are represented in procedural long-term memory. The duration of information in long-term memory is very long, and is potentially available for retrieval for as long as we live. The capacity of the long-term memory seems to be virtually unlimited. In fact, it seems to be the case that the storage of knowledge in long-term memory actually increases the capacity to add new knowledge. Encoding, Compilation and Retrieval Encoding and compilation processes allow us to modify the contents of long-term memory, and retrieval allows us to make use of the knowledge we have stored there. Encoding is the process of preparing information to be stored in declarative long-term memory. Compilation is the process that uses declarative knowledge in working memory Manuscript 9/28/03 28 and creates new procedural knowledge in procedural long-term memory. Retrieval is the process of activating or recalling knowledge from long-term memory. In the case of declarative knowledge, retrieval makes the knowledge active in working memory. In the case of procedural knowledge, retrieval results in the automatic performance of some action. Successful learning depends on encoding or compiling knowledge so that it can be retri...
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