For this manuscript 92803 38 reason the conditions

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ven when it is inappropriate. Conversely, when conditions of a production are overly specific, the match will only occur in a limited set of circumstances. In other words, sometimes an action might not be taken, even when it would have been appropriate to do so. For this Manuscript 9/28/03 38 reason, the conditions that are stored as part the production are critical in determining the ultimate usefulness of a skill. This is why it is important that a skill be practiced in as many appropriate contexts as possible. Levels of Processing: An Alternative to the Multi-Store Model You have just finished reading about a version of the information-processing model or multi-store model of memory. The term multi-store model of memory refers to the different memory structures or locations where processing and storage of knowledge occur (sensory register, working memory, long-term memory). This view has not been without its critics, and one important alternative which has been proposed is levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). From a levels of processing perspective, the permanence or duration of a memory is a function of level at which the information has been processed. Levels of processing can range from shallow to deep. At a shallow level, the information is analyzed in terms of sensory or physical characteristics like brightness, contour, pitch, etc. At a deep level of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning, particularly its relationship to other knowledge the learner possesses. In general, information which is processed at a deeper level is more likely to be retained and understood. For example, maybe recently you have had the experience of sitting down to read a few pages of text, and at some point you realize that you don’t remember anything you just read. You really were not concentrating on the reading, and you remember looking at words and pictures, but little more than that. Maybe on another occasion you memorized a textbook definition so that you could write in down on a test. When the test questions asked for application or Manuscript 9/28/03 39 understanding, you became aware that you did not understand the definition. Levels of processing theorists would suggest that in both of these situations, you failed to process the information deeply. You did not process the information in a way that would make it meaningful. Although levels of processing was proposed as an alternative to the multi-store model, a general implication of both seems to be very similar. If students are going to understand and retain what they are trying to learn, then they must analyze what they are learning in terms of its meaning. Another way to think of this is that if students are going to process information at a deep level, they will need to engage in processes like elaboration and organization and they will need to be active in their own learning. Cognitive Learning Principles from Information Processing Theory In keeping with the them of this book, the concepts presented in this chapter have been synthesized into four general learning principles. In this section we will again pres...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online