If you ask them what they were doing during that

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Unformatted text preview: there is a considerable pause before they answer. If you ask them what they were doing during that pause they are likely to say they were trying to visualize the location of the phone. Manuscript 9/28/03 10 Information about where things are is frequently stored as images like a mental map that can be recalled when we need to find something. Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words and an image can actually contain a great deal of information. To test this, try to write a complete description of the example of an image presented in Figure 3.1. As teachers, we will find it useful from time to time to have students create images to understand and remember complicated information. A proposition is a language-based representation that stores information about the semantic relationship between at least two elements of a chunk (Anderson, 1983 and 1993). While propositions are frequently described using words it is important to remember that a proposition represents an idea, not a specific collection of words (Gagne, Yekovich & Yekovich, 1993). This means that propositions store information about the meaning of experiences based on our interpretations of those experiences. This allows us to eliminate information that is not meaningful resulting in a more compact memory unit. These more compact units may be more easily manipulated and combined as we think about and reason through our experiences. Propositions allow is to store information about things that may not be easily stored as a temporal string or image, and are often an interpretation of some experience. However, there is a disadvantage to storing information as a proposition, because if our interpretation is incorrect, the information stored is also incorrect. Learners tend to code information from reading or listening as propositions (Kintsch, 1977), and propositions have been very important in research on how students process text or a lecture. As a first step in such study, the researcher frequently determines how many propositions are contained in the material to be learned. This is done using the type of short-hand shown in Figure 3.1 to represent each proposition in the Manuscript 9/28/03 11 material to be learned. In the example, shown in 3.1, the proposition is represented by the “dot” with arrows pointing to the elements and relationship contained in the proposition. In this example there are two elements, square and checkered. The relationship between square and checkered is expressed by the verb “is.” The proposition is, “The square is checkered.” Proposition may be organized into a propositional network that shows how the ideas in a text are related. Figure 3.2 (Figure 3.2 appears at the end of the chapter) is an example of a propositional network for the sentence, “The quick red fox jumped over the lazy brown dog.” As you can see, this simple sentence contains five propositional chunks of information. Analyzing text or speech in this way can give us an idea of how much information people can process in a...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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