Knowledge that allows us to describe or recognize

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: knowledge is represented in the mind. Knowledge that allows us to describe or recognize objects and events is called declarative knowledge, while knowledge that allows us to actually perform some physical or mental action is called procedural knowledge (Ryle, 1949, Anderson, 1983). Declarative Knowledge is the way our mind represents facts, ideas, and concepts. It gets its name because it is knowledge we can declare orally or in writing. We hope that you gain some declarative knowledge from reading this text. Some example of the things your new declarative knowledge should allow you to do might include: Manuscript 9/28/03 7 • State how cognitive learning theorist define learning. • List the learning principles of this chapter. • Discuss the difference between cognitive and behavioral views of learning. Declarative knowledge is important because it allows us to interpret our experiences by recognizing how they are similar to past experience. Also, declarative knowledge combined with our powers of deduction and inference allow us to understand the present and predict the future. Procedural Knowledge is “how to” knowledge that guides the performance of physical and mental skills. Procedural knowledge allows us to do things like bake cookies, do a front somersault, or solve a long-division problem. An important characteristic of a skill represented by procedural knowledge is its automaticity. Automaticity refers to the degree to which a skill can be performed without consciously thinking and deciding about each step of the performance. This occurs when a skill is well practiced. For example, if you are taking notes while you are reading, you really don’t have to concentrate on the skills involved in letter formation or writing. Thankfully, those skills have reached a level of automaticity so that they can be performed without your conscious attention. Some psychologists estimate that only 5% of our learned behaviors are consciously controlled; the other 95% function without conscious control (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). The distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge is important for teachers, because it roughly corresponds to the types of information that define an academic domain. For example, a science curriculum might include certain facts, such as the values of natural constants like the speed of light, as well as concepts such as the Manuscript 9/28/03 8 conservation of energy and matter. These facts and concepts are examples of information that would be represented as declarative knowledge by the learner. There are also likely to be science skills included in the curriculum. Examples of these skills might include analytical techniques, techniques for the preparation of specimens, or the operation of special equipment. The skills would need to represented in students’ memories as procedural knowledge. Teachers, therefore, need to understand these different types of knowledge and how they are learned. Representations of Declarative Knowledge in Memory. Whenever we think about what people know, it seems natural to think in terms of th...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online